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The Camino de Santiago is credited with many cultural and religious exchanges in the Middle Ages. My study will analyze the work of the Spanish poet, Gonzalo de Berceo, and the French poet, Marie de France, as an exarnple of the cultural exchanges between France and the iberian Peninsula by means of the Camino de Santiago in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Even though these writers belong to different social backgrounds, and composed their texts for distinct purposes, we find similarities in their works. These two medieval authors have often been studied separately but it is my goal to demonstrate their simiiarities. Chapter 1 gives a socio-political overview of the lberian Peninsula during the thirteenth century and demonstrates how these factors influenced Berceo's Milagros de Nuestra Seriora.
We will see how it integrates popular elements into a learned genre to influence and attract pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela.
Chapter 3 looks at the context in which Marie de France wrote her Lais. We observe the learned techniques as weli as the popular details of her region that transfonn oral tales of Breton and Norman folklore into highly polished octosyllabic verses. Chapter 4 is where we determine the mutual influences that exist in the composition of the Lais and Milagros: the importance of Antiquity in medieval texts, and popular images and refrains.
The initial goal that I proposed for this study has been accomplished to a degree. I have been able to prove that Gonzalo de Berceo and Marie de France share many similar elements in their texts. Even though they were both writing in different centuries and regions, and about different subjects, it is obvious that the "Camino de Santiago" played a large role in the exchange of cultural traits and historical events.
I have only just begun to scratch the surface of this vast area of study. It is my hope to continue discovering other similarities present in the works of these authors during at UBC. The walls inside the original cloister are severely decayed and efforts are being made to stop the decomposition.
There is a stark contrast between the ancient architecture and the modern wooden devices that are now holding it together. Even though time and natural elements are eroding the monastery, the texts that were produced there in the thirteenth century are still very much alive and are studied with a great enthusiasm. Pilgrims have been traveling to Santiago since the ninth century and in the process they would leave behind cultural and learned influences in the area.
French monks, who were trying to solidify the teachings of the Roman Church, founded the monastery in the tenth century. Because of the language and education barriers in the Middle Ages, these original texts would not have targeted the same audience. The verse structure that he chose is Cuaderna Via, a meter that is associated with narrative verse.
Berceo uses popular tradition to attract his audience and therefore his compositions show a mixture of learned and popular elements. Marie de France is the second composer that will be studied in this thesis. She, like Berceo, wrote a collection of texts destined for a specific audience. The narrator of the Lais explains that musical accompaniment was part of the presentation of these texts, a factor that would have kept the audience entertained for many hours.
Like Berceo's Milagros, these texts are complemented by the addition of popular details, refrains and superstitions. To these leamed techniques she adds popular details such as supernatural creatures and worlds, refrains and familiar locations. All of these incorporations form a bond with her audience and make her texts more believable. Berceo has written about the power and grace of the Virgin Mary. What do Marie's texts show? The feudal hierarchy survived for so many centuries because of the loyalty established between a vassal and a lord.
Another important component of the feudal hierarchy was the inheritance issue. All of these factors will be discussed in greater detail later in the following chapters.
He has had to consider the Middle Ages in detail to understand the social context leading up to the production of Rabelais' texts. Bakhtin's divisions between the institutions and the townspeople are valuable to my study because he claims that there are definite boundaries between these two social groups. I have been able to determine that these divisions are not as clear as he makes them seem.
Even though we do not know very much about Marie de France, it is obvious that she was part of the institutions because of her level of education and because of her dedication of the Lais to an unknown King. Berceo was a member of the clergy and therefore received a compulsory education.
Chapter 1. The text that will be analysed in this study is of particular interest, as there are obvious signs of a French infiuence in the style of its composition and in the content of its ideas. This pilgrimage was the birthplace of a cultural infiuence that appears in many works of the period and was shared with the native populations. The French elements that will be analysed in greater detail for the purpose of this study are linguistic, liturgical, genre-based and stylistic.
Monks from French orders were cementing this change in religious liturgy in northern Spain. The change in religious liturgy did not appear on the scene rapidly; it took many years for the process to establish itself. The most common liturgy was Mozarabic or Visigothic liturgy.
Because the Mozarabic liturgy contained local elements, Rome sustained that it was unholy and therefore declared it heresy Saugnieux, Islam and Judaism were perceived as threats to Christianity, and because Spain had a very high concentration of these two religions, Rome declared that the Visigothic liturgy had been tainted with negative influences and therefore should becondemned.
The arrival of French monastic orders in Spain gave Rome hope that this land would soon be rid of the threat posed by the other monotheistic religions. If the Church had been so opposed to liturgical differences in Spain, why would a clergyman living in a French monastery choose to write about the "enemy"?
He had written a work about the perpetual virginity of Mary and created a new festival dedicated to Her. This was designed to avoid what should be a joyful celebration with a time of grieving . Because Saint Ildefonsus had written about the Virgin Mary and attributes such importance to her role in the salvation of the human race, Berceo has to include this kind of devotion in his narrative.
The problems of the Spanish Church were not as easy to solve as Rome had hoped. In Santiago de Compostela, the clergy believed that because they had the remains of the Apostle James, one of the closest persons to Christ, they would be able to have their own say in religious matters Castro, Even though Rome had the remains of St. Peter and St. Paul and was regarded by all other European countries as the head of the Church, the Church in Spain refused to acknowledge most of its orders.
Most of the disagreements that had taken place were related to the payment of taxes. The Spanish church, led by a headstrong hierarchy, refused to pay these dues because they were going to be used to fight the Crusades in far off Iands.
Ferreiro, III, The monks and priests, who had been forbidden to fight and carry arms by the Church in Rome, ignored these orders and even took part in battles. They also completely disregarded the dress code; they all had beards and wore "every-man" clothing.
The most common image to appear in Berceo's is the drunken monk 8. It has been suggested that Berceo wrote his Milagros in order to tastefully point out what was wrong with his society Keller, Even though the Church in Rome had created numerous barriere for its clergy, the Church in Spain had a different set of rules.
These characters are ofFered salvation from their earthly mistakes through the understanding and pity of the Virgin Mary. It is by Her grace that they will be saved. Berceo does not criticise his characters severely, instead, he mentions how foolish they are to have neglected their religious example. Stanza 3. Stanzas 4. The three religions were sharing the same space and there was very little evidence of tensions among them until the 15"1 century.
In the major cities of the time, such as Toledo - a centre for translation of texts - there are obvious influences of the three cultures in the architecture of the city as well as other works of art. People had to deal with each other in businesses and on the streets. Anti-Semitism began to surface in the writings of the thirteenth century and perhaps even earlier due tothe differing opinions of the immigrants and visitors from other European countries.
The European countries, mostly funded by monies and knights from France, contributed to a "Holy" War in this "heathen" land, which changed the co-existence that had once taken place there.
Once the French religious orders became established in northern Spain, this dislike toward other religious groups became more apparent. The Milagros are filled with indirect and many times direct anti-Semitic feelings. Berceo uses images and language in order to make his point.
He believes that all Jewish people work for the Devil and are pursuing the soul of the Christian. Berceo uses defamatory language and terms when he describes the Jewish characters in his Milagros. Because this character would not allow his son to attend the Christian Church, Berceo treats the father in an even more violent fashion. When it is this character's turn to receive his punishment for trying to kill his son in an oven, the narrator says the following.
Even though this theme only appears in five of the twenty-five milagros, it clearly demonstrates the way Berceo regarded this social group,. During the Middle Ages, the Jewish population was not regarded kindly. Many stereotypes began to surface in the collective memory of society, and some had to do with the merchant classes.
The Church had mixed feelings about this particular social class because it was involved in the trade of goods, and, particularly, usury. Monetary gain was believed to be one of the worst sins, leading to greed and the eventual distance from religious beliefs. Christian usurers were chastised publicly by the Church and other members of the society because it was forbidden in the New Testament to increase their wealth at the cost of others, especially by using God's gift of time Gurevich, There was no religious law that forbade the Jewish community from participating in this trade, therefore they established a system that was used by them and the Christians in their cities.
Usury became more common in the 12 th and 13 th centuries as merchants became more dominant in the worldly hierarchy of the Middle Ages. It is probably for this reason that Berceo placed the stereotypical character of the moneylender in his collection of milagros. They had to take their caravans into far-off lands, make their way among the alien races and populations, and confront all imaginable dangers. Once he has lost all of his wealth, he turns to a moneylender in order to improve his lifestyle.
With the borrowed money, he embarks on a trading expedition to a distant land. The moneylender stays in the town and becomes angry when the merchant does not repay his debt. Berceo approves of the merchant in this milagro as he does not criticize him for wanting more money, and thus demonstrates the evolution of medieval thought and priorities. He has a very interesting way of describing the moneylender in the same milagro. He also contrasts this character with the Christian, who is hardworking and charitable.
Stanzas 10 The last stanza demonstrates to the modern reader how Berceo transfers his attention from the Jewish character to the Christian.
Los Milagros De Nuestra Senora
The Camino de Santiago is credited with many cultural and religious exchanges in the Middle Ages. My study will analyze the work of the Spanish poet, Gonzalo de Berceo, and the French poet, Marie de France, as an exarnple of the cultural exchanges between France and the iberian Peninsula by means of the Camino de Santiago in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Even though these writers belong to different social backgrounds, and composed their texts for distinct purposes, we find similarities in their works. These two medieval authors have often been studied separately but it is my goal to demonstrate their simiiarities. Chapter 1 gives a socio-political overview of the lberian Peninsula during the thirteenth century and demonstrates how these factors influenced Berceo's Milagros de Nuestra Seriora. We will see how it integrates popular elements into a learned genre to influence and attract pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela. Chapter 3 looks at the context in which Marie de France wrote her Lais.
In this section you can search all our contents throughout the different stages in the history of art in Spain, to find styles such as Baroque, Gothic, Mudejar and many, many more. In this section you can search among all our contents by topic to find the different resources available in Spain, such as museums, routes, destinations, monuments and many, many more. This section provides access to all the contents in a personalised way, according to your own particular interests and socio-demographic profile. Its sources are popular literary traditions, passed down orally, which he himself could hear, and a Latin collection of twenty-eight prose stories.