James Churchward 27 February — 4 January was a British occult writer, inventor, engineer, and fisherman. Churchward is most notable for proposing the existence of a lost continent , called " Mu ," in the Pacific Ocean. His writings on Mu are considered to be pseudoscience. James had four brothers and four sisters. In November , Henry died and the family moved in with Matilda's parents in the hamlet of Kigbear, near Okehampton. Census records indicate the family next moved to London when James was 18 after his grandfather George Gould died.
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Mu is a legendary lost continent that also appears in lost world literature. It was subsequently popularized as an alternative term for the hypothetical land of Lemuria by James Churchward , who asserted that Mu was located in the Pacific Ocean before its destruction. The place of Mu in literature has been discussed in detail in Lost Continents by L.
Sprague de Camp. Geologists dismiss the existence of Mu and the lost continent of Atlantis as physically impossible, arguing that a continent can neither sink nor be destroyed in the short period of time asserted in legends and folklore and literature about these places. Brasseur believed that a word which he read as Mu referred to a land that had been submerged by a catastrophe. In our journey westward across the Atlantic we shall pass in sight of that spot where once existed the pride and life of the ocean, the Land of Mu, which, at the epoch that we have been considering, had not yet been visited by the wrath of Human, that lord of volcanic fires to whose fury it afterward fell a victim.
The description of that land given to Solon by Sonchis , priest at Sais ; its destruction by earthquakes , and submergence, recorded by Plato in his Timaeus , have been told and retold so many times that it is useless to encumber these pages with a repetition of it. VI, p. Le Plongeon claimed that the civilization of ancient Egypt was founded by Queen Moo, a refugee from the land's demise. Other refugees supposedly fled to Central America and became the Maya.
Mu, as an alternative name for a lost Pacific Ocean continent previously identified as the hypothetical Lemuria the supposed place of origin for lemurs , was later popularised by James Churchward — in a series of books, beginning with Lost Continent of Mu, the Motherland of Man ,  re-edited later as The Lost Continent Mu Churchward claimed that "more than fifty years ago", while he was a soldier in India , he befriended a high-ranking temple priest who showed him a set of ancient "sunburnt" clay tablets, supposedly in a long lost "Naga-Maya language" which only two other people in India could read.
Churchward convinced the priest to teach him the dead language and decipher the tablets by promising to restore and store the tablets for Churchward was an expert in preserving ancient artifacts. The tablets were written in either Burma or in the lost continent of Mu itself according to the high priest.
The edition states that "all matter of science in this work are based on translations of two sets of ancient tablets": the clay tablets he read in India, and a collection of 2, stone tablets that had been uncovered by William Niven in Mexico.
The tablets begin with the creation of Earth, Mu, and the superior human civilization Naacal by the seven commands of the seven superlative intellects of the Seven-headed serpent Narayana. This creation story dismisses the theory of evolution. At the time of its demise, about 12, years ago, Mu had 64,, inhabitants and seven major cities, and colonies on the other continents.
The 64 million inhabitants were separated as ten tribes that followed one government and one religion. Churchward claimed that the landmass of Mu was located in the Pacific Ocean, and stretched east—west from the Marianas to Easter Island , and north—south from Hawaii to Mangaia. According to Churchward the continent was supposedly 5, miles east to west and over 3, miles from north to south. That is bigger than the continent South America.
The continent was believed to be flat with massive plains, vast rivers, rolling hills, large bays, and estuaries. Eventually Mu "was completely obliterated in almost a single night":  : 44 after a series of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions , "the broken land fell into that great abyss of fire" and was covered by "fifty millions of square miles of water.
Once the gases were empty after the explosion they collapsed on themselves causing the island to crumble and sink. Churchward claimed that Mu was the common origin of the great civilizations of Egypt, Greece, Central America, India, Burma and others, including Easter Island, and was in particular the source of ancient megalithic architecture.
As evidence for his claims, he pointed to symbols from throughout the world, in which he saw common themes of birds, the relation of the Earth and the sky, and especially the Sun. Other pieces of evidence for his claims, Churchward looked to the Holy Bible and found that through his own translations, Moses was trained by Naacal brotherhood in Egypt. Assyria mis-translated when writing and misplaced the garden of Eden, which according to Churchward would have been located in the Pacific ocean.
Churchward makes references to the Ramayana epic, a religious text of Hindu attributed to sage and historian Valmiki. Churchward attributed all megalithic art in Polynesia to the people of Mu. He claimed that symbols of the sun are found "depicted on stones of Polynesian ruins", such as the stone hats pukao on top of the giant moai statues of Easter Island. Citing W. The platforms on which the statues rest ahu are described by Churchward as being "platform-like accumulations of cut and dressed stone", which were supposedly left in their current positions "awaiting shipment to some other part of the continent for the building of temples and palaces".
The lost continent of Mu according to Jack E. Churchward is different from the continent of Lemuria that is theorized to be in the Pacific or Indian Ocean. In his novels Churchward never mentions of the supposed other lost continent of Lemuria.
Lemuria is imagined to be slightly bigger than Mu when located in the Pacific, but otherwise most people generally consider them the same mythological continent that once existed in the Pacific Ocean. In the novel Oahspe: A New Bible , John Newbrough included a map of the Earth in antediluvian times before the great flood in biblical times where an unknown continent is located in the Northern Pacific.
Newbrough called this continent Pan. People often link both Pan and Mu as the same mythological continent since both are claimed to be located in the Pacific. Newbrough continues to claim that the unknown continent disappeared 24, years ago, but will soon rise from the Pacific and will be inhabited by the Kosmon race. According to Heindel, Mu existed when the Earth's crust was still hardening, in a period of high heat and dense atmosphere. Heindel claims humans existed at this time, but humans had the power to shape-shift.
He says they had no eyes but rather two sensitive spots that were affected by the light of the Sun. In the dense atmosphere, humans were guided more by internal perception than by external vision. The language of these humans consisted of the sounds of nature.
Louis Jacolliot was a French attorney , judge , and occultist who specialized in the translation of Sanskrit. He wrote about the land of the Rutas, a lost land that ancient sources claimed was in the Indian Ocean but which he placed in the Pacific Ocean and associated with Atlantis stories in Histoire des Vierges. Les Peuples et les continents disparus He amplified upon this in Occult Science in India , English translation He has been identified as a contributor to Rosicrucianism.
James Bramwell and William Scott-Elliot claimed that the cataclysmic events on Mu began , years ago  : and went on until the last catastrophe, which occurred in precisely BC. Masaaki Kimura has suggested that certain underwater features located off the coast of Yonaguni Island , Japan popularly known as the Yonaguni Monument , are ruins of Mu. Modern geological knowledge rules out "lost continents" of any significant size.
According to the theory of plate tectonics , which has been extensively confirmed since the s, the Earth's crust consists of lighter " sial " rocks continental crust rich in aluminium silicates that float on heavier " sima " rocks oceanic crust richer in magnesium silicates. The sial is generally absent in the ocean floor where the crust is a few kilometers thick, while the continents are huge solid blocks tens of kilometers thick.
Since continents float on the sima much like icebergs float on water, a continent cannot simply "sink" under the ocean. It is true that continental drift and seafloor spreading can change the shape and position of continents and occasionally break a continent into two or more pieces as happened to Pangaea.
However, these are very slow processes that occur in geological time scales hundreds of millions of years. Over the scale of history tens of thousands of years , the sima under the continental crust can be considered solid, and the continents are basically anchored on it. It is almost certain that the continents and ocean floors have retained their present position and shape for the whole span of human existence.
There is also no conceivable event that could have "destroyed" a continent, since its huge mass of sial rocks would have to end up somewhere—and there is no trace of it at the bottom of the oceans. The Pacific Ocean islands are not part of a submerged landmass but rather the tips of isolated volcanoes.
Moreover, the "Triumphal Road" that Pierre Loti had reported ran from the island to the submerged lands below, is actually a natural lava flow. After the Pleistocene , cultures of the Americas and the Old World developed social complexity independent of each other,  : 62 and, in fact, agriculture and sedentism emerged in multiple locations around the world after the inception of the Holocene at 11, BP. Easter Island was first settled around AD  and the pukao on the moai are regarded as having ceremonial or traditional headdresses.
Archaeologist Robert Wauchope noted sarcastically that "One exasperated anthropologist wondered whether it would not be more reasonable to suppose that it was less the cataclysms of nature that wiped out these civilizations that a possible head-on clash between the eager colonizers of Mu and those of Atlantis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Lost Continent of Mu, the Motherland of Man.
United States: Kessinger Publishing. Hidden History. New Page Books. Page Dover Publications. Random House. Garrett G. Fagan Routledge ed. Archaeological Fantasies. London: Routledge. The Author.
Jeb Spooky Archaeology, Myth and the Science of the Past. University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque pg. The Lost Continent of Mu. New York: Ives Washburn. University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London. Lost Atlantis. Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten. Archived from the original PDF on Civilization in the 21st Century PDF. Russia: How to Save the Future?. Santa Barbara, Calif. The Ryukyuanist Autumn
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Mu is a legendary lost continent that also appears in lost world literature. It was subsequently popularized as an alternative term for the hypothetical land of Lemuria by James Churchward , who asserted that Mu was located in the Pacific Ocean before its destruction. The place of Mu in literature has been discussed in detail in Lost Continents by L. Sprague de Camp. Geologists dismiss the existence of Mu and the lost continent of Atlantis as physically impossible, arguing that a continent can neither sink nor be destroyed in the short period of time asserted in legends and folklore and literature about these places. Brasseur believed that a word which he read as Mu referred to a land that had been submerged by a catastrophe. In our journey westward across the Atlantic we shall pass in sight of that spot where once existed the pride and life of the ocean, the Land of Mu, which, at the epoch that we have been considering, had not yet been visited by the wrath of Human, that lord of volcanic fires to whose fury it afterward fell a victim.
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Mu (lost continent)
My great-grandfather, James Churchward wrote a series of books on the Lost Continent of Mu beginning in the late s. His books stated that the now-lost. Pakistan is again an area of conflict, from without her borders, and the Khyber Pass to Afghanistan has always churcjward a major escape route in battles. In jajes, he amassed over 2, tablets, which he placed in a private museum in Mexico City before his death in The description of that land given to Solon by Sonchispriest at Sais ; its destruction by earthquakesand submergence, recorded by Plato in his Timaeushave been told and retold so many times that it is useless to encumber churchwarr pages with a repetition of it. His writings attempt to describe the civilisation of Mu, its history, inhabitants, and influence on subsequent history and civilisation. Churchward and the lost island of Mu also appear in Philip K. James Churchward ; Pelin Tornay.