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Las escuelas no fueron siempre como las conocemos actualmente. Lo eterno no tiene ni principio ni fin. Es inclusiva y global. Planeta — Agostini, Barcelona. A-Z editora, Buenos Aires. Jump to. Sections of this page. Accessibility Help. Email or Phone Password Forgot account?
Log In. Forgot account? Not Now. Visitor Posts. Alejandro Manenti. Continue Reading. Mukkaira Yana Kkaira. Information about Page Insights Data. From homeric education to the civilization of Paideia. Why read History of Education in Antiquity of H. According to the author himself, the text of the book was written between and From an educational point of view are we grecolatinos?
Marrou claims that education in Greek and Roman antiquity " allows us to rediscover the direct origins of our own pedagogical tradition. Although it is an evolution characterized by complex phases". Marrou claims that " the ancient Mediterranean world knew well a classic education, a coherent and determined education system.
It is important to read it to locate the moments and some concepts that interest the author. The "system" appears in late form, after the decisive contribution of Plato and Isocrates in the th century BC. Classical education or civilization of Paideia just reaches its maturity in the Hellenistic era.
Then it will spread out of the Greek world, to Rome, Italy and the Latinized West through transposition and adaptations. Homeric education between BC and approximately BC. According to Marrou with Homer, the tradition of Greek culture begins. The paidea is starting to unwrap, or Greek education. To study homeric education, Iliad and Odyssey are the fundamental sources. These texts reflect the imprint of warrior values linked to aristocratic mentality. Homeric education had a warrior and heroic character.
The ideal par excellence was the earring, ideal cavalry linked to nobility and courtier behavior. Marrou emphasizes the importance of the king surrounded by warriors, of a court in which different types of vassals participated. They highlight the gerontes that gave advice thanks to their experience. Also the young Kouroi warriors, who lived in court and ate at the king's table.
The secret of homeric education is the heroic example. Educators encouraged imitation of heroes. Greek education and crises of the police In the so-called Greek archaic era th to th century BC the cops bloom as self-governed cities and hoplitic armies.
When the crisis of the world of police in the th century BC C caused by different factors, among which the Peloponnesian wars facing the nucleated Greeks themselves around Sparta and Athens, the rise of Macedonia begins, under the leadership of Philip and his successor Alexander.
The Hellenistic era and the civilization of Paideia In the th century from the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek culture is universalized and Hellenism begins.
Greek Paideia is the foundation of a civilization in which education extends its content and renew its organization. For Lorenzo Luzuriaga the traits of Hellenistic education are as follows: Education has a public municipal character. Intellectual aspects linked to the development of reading, writing and calculation are accentuated. Higher education is linked to the University of Athens and the Alexandria Museum.
The scientific momentum and the thrust of philosophy and rhetoric is remarkable. For Luzuriaga, the paideia becomes enkyklos-paideia, into encyclopedia: " The important thing about this era is that it leaves established with its encyclopedia, the curriculum that will follow later the western world, for many centuries, with trivium and quadrivium; that included grammar, rhetoric, philosophy or dialectics ; this is arithmetic, music, geometry and astronomy; that is, the division into humanistic and realistic matters that has endured in the world.
So, thinking about the projections of classical education requires determining their relationships and adequacy in different areas of general culture, such as religious, for example. Eudeba, Buenos Aires. Losada, Buenos Aires. Google Drive is a free way to keep your files backed up and easy to reach from any phone, tablet, or computer. Start with 15GB of Google storage — free.
Meet Google Drive — One place for all your files. From a chronological point of view they are the first schools of humanity. Other authors see in Egypt the cradle of civilization. Kramer, in the text we read, says that in Sumer the school comes from cuneiform writing: Why was the " house of tablets " so important "? What features did Sumerian school education have?
Before the "Greek miracle", in the first civilizations of Mesopotamia, India, China and Egypt had already deployed artistic expressions and highlighted the power exercised by priests - as Abbagnano and Visalberghi say - bearers of a fundamental knowledge: domain of writing.
According to Marrou, the Eastern scribe was an official who put his knowledge of writing at the service of the administration. The Oriental scribe was " The scribes were so influential that they are formed a writing culture. The scribe formation began in childhood. According to Bowen in the edubbas or houses of the tablets, the elementary instruction that was group was provided. Instead, the second stage was specialized and individualized. In the second stage the scribe was attached to some state dependency.
The main function of the edubba was to prepare the future scribes of the temple and the palace. The first scribe schools were part of the temple units alongside the remaining branches of the administration. The book The Story begins in Sumer is Samuel Noah Kramer's most famous for both for its beauty and the clarity with which he exposes the cultural legacy of Sumerians.
For Kramer Sumerians are the first artisans of civilization. School of scribes and teaching For this author, since years before the Christian era, there were already scribes that thought in terms of teaching and study.
In these schools, potential administrators were taught to write. Teaching was neither general nor mandatory. Most students were men of the privileged sector. Leo Oppenheim refers to teaching in ancient Mesopotamia: " The characteristic teaching method has bequeathed us endless ' school tablet s' usually small discs in lenticular form ; these present on a face or on a line a sign, a word, or a short sentence written by the hand of the master, and, on the back or below the line , the disciple's efforts to copy the example.
Other tablets, often rather poorly written, contain extracts from literary works copied by students. Starting with simple signs and groups of signs, and following with more complex and difficult combinations, the student had to copy and learn by heart the pronunciation and reading of a wide variety of simple and compound sign sequences. Apparently, we had to faithfully follow a very rooted resume, not only with regard to the most elementary lists, but also regarding the study of literary works.
As they were very religious, they believed the gods had invented scripture. The scribes recorded signs in the mud shaped like wedges using a triangular cane. Reading Kramer's text serves us to know an example, of the many we could study, of the first schools that emerged in older pre-capitalist societies. We already said that ancestral educational traditionalism was deployed in societies whose foundation of support was community work mandatory demanded by the State in the form of tribute.
When rulers were anxious conquering and managed to subdue neighbouring villages they usually demanded them to pay tributes. The conquered towns and cities paid with products of all kinds, even with slaves. In societies organized in this way what functions did schools perform? Schools, linked to temples or palaces trained scribes and "officials" responsible for managing and controlling the quantity and quality of tributes stored in real deposits.
It was also necessary to prepare the " officials " responsible for the redistribution of " rations ", through which " work " was paid for specialists, artisans, etc.
The redistribution of state "rations" allowed the regular maintenance of cult and the eventual livelihood of communities in the face of critical junctures: wars, droughts, famines, pests, etc. The first schools, linked to temples or palaces, were also the "centers of culture" in which scholars were educated, for example myth writers, chroniclers and astronomers. I want to highlight the importance of magicians in ancient societies, specializing in divination, enchantments and interpretation of dreams.
It seems to me that all historical societies need to find ways to fight their "demons". Educational practices of ancient traditionalism associated magic, enchantments and omens, within the framework of official cults and rituals. To reflect: How do the creation of writing and the appearance of the first schools relate?
FCE, Mexico. Volume I. Herder, Barcelona. AYMA Barcelona. Portrait of an extinct civilization.
European and Latin American Higher Education Between Mirrors