It is funded by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, and has the objective of developing innovation environments around Andean native crops using methodologies and tools of futures studies, as well as to foment high quality research on sustainable and nutritious Andean crops. On the 1 st workshop in November , participants did an Environmental Scanning of the Andean food and agriculture sector in each country. An adapted version of the Futures Wheel was used as a tool for organizing ideas and inspiring discussion. Futures Wheel is a brainstorming method developed by the Millennium Project co-founder Jerome Glenn that helps to identify megatrends, trends, weak signals, events and decisions of certain topics.
|Published (Last):||7 July 2017|
|PDF File Size:||19.22 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||5.29 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Agronomic characterization of quinoa Chenopodium quinoa Willd. The present research was carried out at the research and production center CIP of Camacani. The objective was to agronomically characterize the self-fertilized S5 progeny originating from simple crosses that were genetically distant and close. Seeds were obtained from a plant breeding program by hybridization, and molecular markers were used to estimate genetic distances for the generation of new cultivars.
El mejor peso de 1. Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Underutilized cultivation of this species has recently gained attention because of its ability to adapt to extreme environmental conditions Geerts et al. Quinoa adapts well in response to stressful environmental factors such as drought, salinity and frost Suracheth, It is for these reasons why this species is being revalued as an alternative crop species for the production of food in several countries and worldwide, reaching great importance in international markets such as those in the USA, Japan, and Europe Mujica et al.
In this context, quinoa has undergone various selection processes to obtain desirable traits, for cultivation and for consumption by people in different cultures and territories in South America Bazile et al. Agricultural production needs to increase according to the growth of the global population, which occurs concurrently with increasingly low water availability.
In areas with water restriction, species or genotypes capable of production under stress conditions must be selected Garrido, Therefore, via the descriptors of characterization and evaluation of quinoa proposed by Bioversity International , the agronomic and morphological characteristics of the progeny of self-fertilized S5 quinoa lines were evaluated.
The selected lines of self-fertilized S5 progeny from simple crosses those genetically distant and close are not characterized for six quinoa Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Based on the above, this research aims to agronomically characterize the progeny from self-fertilized S5 plants from simple crosses that are genetically distant and close.
Six parents were used Table 1 , and six progeny of self-fertilized S5 lines were evaluated Table 2. The seeds were obtained from plant breeding program by hybridization.
The genetic distances for the generation of new cultivars were estimated via molecular markers with the aim of creating relatively high genetic variability and a relatively high heritability coefficient in the search for hybrid vigor.
For planting, envelopes were prepared with 5 g of seed for each furrow and were sown with a continuous jet applicator at a density of 10 kg ha -1 prior to the application of decomposed sheep manure at the bottom of each furrow.
The distance between the furrow was 0. At the time of the sowing, the seeds were not more than 2 cm in depth. Agricultural work was carried out in accordance with the crop requirements. For phytosanitary control, nothing was above the threshold of economic damage; only some larvae of Eurysacca quinoae Povolny were observed in the phase of physiological maturity.
There was also an infestation of green aphids Myzus persicae. Agronomic characterization was carried out according to the descriptors of Bioversity International One agronomic variable evaluated included the height of the plant cm.
These data were recorded at the physiological maturity of the crop, taking 10 plants at random per furrow. The measure was established from the base of the stem to the apex of the central panicle Rojas and Padulosi, The diameter of the stem was evaluated from the middle part of the main stem with the help of a vernier caliper, evaluating 10 plants per furrow.
When the diameter of the panicle was measured, the data were taken from the middle part of the panicle at the stage of physiological maturity, taking 10 plants per furrow; similar to determining the length of the panicle, the measurements were taken from the base to the apex of the panicle with the help of a tape measure, and 10 plants per furrow were measured. The grain yield per hectare was subsequently determined per plant for the 10 plants evaluated in each furrow; after cleaning the seeds of any impurities, they were weighed on an analytical balance.
It was observed that this variable is strongly dependent on the genotype and, at the same time, on the variable components, including the diameter of the stem, plant height, the length and diameter of the panicle, and the diameter of the grain, among others.
Statistical analysis of the data obtained was carried out using the multivariate analysis was performed using the conglomerate technique. The crosses showed great variation in terms of plant height. In addition to being a characteristic of each genotype, this variation occurred according to soil fertility and climatic conditions. On the basis of the plant height of the parents and the results obtained from the crosses, we could conclude that the genotype-environment factor quoted by Kaisser was achieved in the data collected in this research.
The same author pointed out that the height of quinoa plants is strongly dependent on variety, with strong effects of locality and year. The crosses showed great variation in terms of stem diameter, which varied according to the characteristics of each genotype. These results indicate that the increase in plant height contributes to the increase in panicle length. Figure 4 shows that the crosses have a greater panicle diameter than do the parents.
Compared with their parents, no significant differences were found; therefore, there was no genetic gain for this variable. The quinoa plant is erect and can reach heights varying from 30 to cm depending on the type of quinoa, the genotype, the environmental conditions where it grows, and the fertility of the soil.
Quinoa plants that grow in valleys are taller than those that grow above the 4, m asl and in cold zones. The plants reach relatively high heights in sheltered and fertile areas, their coloration varies with genotype and phenological phase and they are classified as C3 plants FAO Tapia reported that, according to the variety, quinoa plants can reach different heights. Moreover, Kaisser noted that the height of quinoa plants s strongly dependent on the variety, with strong effects of locality and year; in addition to genotype x environment interactions, characteristics such as maximum hours of light, temperature, solar radiation, and drip irrigation as well as other favorable factors directly influence the development of plants.
It was pointed out that the plant height from the base of the stem to the apex of the inflorescence varies from 0. For improvements, Mujica et al. However, Mujica indicated that the development of the diameter of the stem depends on the variety, which was verified by the catalog of commercial varieties of quinoa in Peru. INIA, Tapia affirmed that, according to variety, quinoa can produce different stem diameters, affirming what Mujica et al.
Delgado and Benavides reported panicle lengths between 22 and 40 cm and relate this component to plant height, specifically increased plant height, and increased panicle length. On the basis of the aforementioned considerations, we conclude that the length of the panicle is variable depending on the genotype, type of quinoa, where it develops and the conditions of soil fertility, reaching from 30 to 80 cm in length and 5 to 30 cm in diameter. These facts are related to the number of seeds per panicle, which range from to , large panicles that yield up to grams per inflorescence have been reported.
With respect to the diameter of the panicle, we point out that the inflorescence of quinoa is clustered by the arrangement of flowers in the cluster and is considered a panicle. In this regard, Quisocala noted that glomerulate inflorescences are considered the primitive form and can be loose or compact; this characteristic is strongly related to crop yield. The weight of seed in grams and the grain diameter are closely related to the height of the plant and the diameter of the panicle, which in turn are related to other factors, such as soil type, variety and environmental factors.
On the other hand, Gallardo et al. The higher the night temperature is, the greater the loss of substances in relation to those acquired photosynthetically during the day. In contrast, Ayala et al. These results suggest that crop yields have a close relationship with variety, type of soil, and environmental factors, as indicated by the authors mentioned above.
The self-fertilized S5 progeny from simple, genetically distant and close crosses were characterized agronomically. Ayala, G. Ortega, and C. Valor nutritivo y usos de la quinua. In: A. Mujica, Jacobsen, E. Portillo, M. Congreso Internacional de la quinua. Bhargava, A. Quinoa: Botany, production and uses. Benavides, A. Descriptores para quinua Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Bazile, D. Nieto, F. Estado del arte de la quinua en el mundo en FAO.
Bonifacio, A. Ibarra, 8—12 de Jul Memorias. Ibarra, EC. Delgado, M. Delgado, P. Adriana, C. Palacios, and H. Evaluation of 16 genotypes of sweet quinoa Chenopodium quinoa Willd.
FAO, Gallardo, M. Gonzales, and G. Lilloa 39 1. Garrido, M. Idesia, 31 2. Geerts, S. Raes, C. Taboada, R. Miranda, J. Cusicanqui, T. Mhizha, and J. Modeling the potential for closing quinoa yield gaps under varying water availability in the Bolivian Altiplano. Agricultural Water Management, — Hidalgo, R.