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Adoption of business game under the perspective of an excellence model in an MBA course: multicriteria peer evaluation analysis. This article describes a business game, one of the last courses in an MBA syllabus. The database analyzed consists of outcomes from 47 classes and students. The aim of the game is to integrate the skills and abilities acquired during the program. The game considerers an evaluation system with 39 items based on an Excellence Model that covers important aspects of the management process.
Only six evaluation items are financial goals; the remaining 33 go through a peer evaluation. These items deal with consumer-supplier aspects and management issues.
A reduction in dimensionality was attained through a Factor Analysis that yielded 14 factors. Is it possible to identify the relevant factors for winning the game?
Two distinct tests significance of a logit model parameters and t -test for equality of means are performed to answer this question. A generalized linear model using a logit link function and a Bernoulli distribution was fitted to the data, confirming that most factors with statistically significant differences in the mean between winners and other participants were also significant in the model. A revolution has been witnessed in the value creation process since the end of the 20th century, which can be partly attributed to the confluence of globalization and technological advances in the transition from an industrial economy to an information-based economy.
This context involves much complexity, instability, and uncertainty. Thus, organizational changes have come to be viewed as one of the main ways to structure and explore the new business world. In this context, Master of Business Administration MBA programs have experienced — especially in recent decades — a progressive and marked expansion, reinforcing their social and economic importance as an instrument for updating, qualifying, and training professionals for the labor market.
These programs play an important role in the economic growth of a country, which involves financial aspects and stimuli for new investments, whether they be in infrastructure, the construction of appropriate environments, the acoustics of these environments, the acquisition of multimedia equipment, the payment of teachers and employees, travel and accommodation of teachers, and others.
MBA programs are powerful generators of jobs and gatherers of service, commerce, and industry activities. This new concept is based on the idea that MBA students, most of whom are professionals operating in the market, are not simply recipients of information the basic assumption in traditional classes but, rather, intangible assets who should be treated as such. The relevant function that MBA programs have been performing generates a need to use new teaching techniques that aim, on the one hand, for a re-evaluation of the work of the teacher who is now viewed as a facilitator of learning and, on the other hand, for the total involvement of the student with the teaching-learning process — known as experiential learning KOLB, The prediction of Rosas and Sauaia has come to fruition in graduate programs: the most important business schools in Brazil have adopted disciplines such as business games, company games, or business simulations in their programs, which have generally been positively evaluated by students.
These disciplines provide a classroom environment that is closer to the environment of a competitive market and represents teaching techniques that stimulate creativity, promote the exercise of communication, enable the exchange of experiences, and stimulate the experience of new roles and decision making in an environment of risk VERSIANI and FACHIN, The number of publications in Brazilian congresses is much more modest.
Table 1 provides the number of articles on business games presented at six annual events — three in Business Administration and three in Engineering.
These events were chosen because they are the most frequent forums for publications by researchers on the theme. The present article uses the results of the applications of a business game in 47 MBA classes, with a total of 1, students allocated among companies.
Using two different statistical methods significance of the parameters of a logit model and t -test for difference of means , the factors relevant to the success of the companies in the game are determined. The evaluation of the companies in the game is based on what business excellence models advocate. In discussing the validity of using business games, near unanimity exists over the point that a business game depends heavily on the quality of the model used and its implementation.
According to Stainton, Johnson and Borodzicz , three sets of suggestions based on the available literature and the experience of business game designers can be adopted to improve the games. These suggestions concern characteristics of the environment, the content, and the implementation of the game.
In addition to the mentioned suggestions, others should be taken into account. According to Hall , the duration of each game must be envisaged in such a way that sufficient time exists for an analysis of the results, as well as decision making, debates, and reflection; the game manual should be written clearly and objectively to provide the necessary information to the participants; and the teachers — viewed as facilitators of learning — need to be trained and have enough technical and business knowledge to provide support and, in particular, feedback to the participants GOSEN, ; HALL, ; WOLFE, The BEM has been improved to adjust to market changes, and it can be used as a guide to make companies more competitive.
At the time of application of the games, the BEM was composed of 13 fundamentals and eight criteria FNQ, and was the model used as a reference for the definition of the weights and the elaboration of the evaluation items described in this article. In , the BEM underwent an update FNQ, , which innovated by being formatted into eight fundamentals that replaced the former eight criteria.
The fundamentals break down into themes that, in turn, materialize into processes. Some tools and methodologies are suggested for each theme. It is worth mentioning that the new version of the BEM is still not prescriptive regarding the tools, the structure, or the manner in which the business is managed.
It is up to each organization to find the most appropriate way to meet the needs and expectations of its stakeholders and to use the information coming from them to formulate their strategic planning — aligning, integrating, sharing, and directing the entire organization to ensure that it operates with excellence in the value chain and manages results for all stakeholders FNQ, , Since , MBA programs of a higher education institution operating nationwide have been introducing the Business Games discipline into their course offerings.
We use the results of the GAME applied to a total of 47 classes and 1, students in 21 cities distributed throughout nine Brazilian states. The GAME lasts 16 class hours, divided into four distinct four-hour encounters.
It simulates a pull production chain because the production chain is driven by the customer DAVIS, This chain is composed of three types of companies Mining, Goldsmiths, and Jewelers — role played by teams of students acting as suppliers and customers, and the Exporter — role played by the teacher, who also assumes the role of the government, thereby ensuring the smooth progress of the GAME.
Figure 1 shows the GAME model, emphasizing that the supplier-customer chain — consisting of three sectors Mining, Goldsmiths, and Jewelers — starts with the demand defined by the Exporter, who engages the Jewelers. In turn, the Jewelers order the jewels from the Goldsmiths who, to make them, acquire raw material from the Mines. Buying and selling relationships are represented by the blue arrows.
Source: Elaborated by the authors. Two to three Mines — they receive and pay consignment or otherwise for raw material lots that will be sold as interchangeable parts for the production of consumer goods jewelry. They sell to the Goldsmiths and evaluate them in the customer-supplier relationship in terms of previously defined items included in the evaluation form presented beforehand to the participants.
Each Mine is formed by two students. Three to four Goldsmiths — they purchase from the Mines interchangeable parts to produce jewelry that is sold to the Jewelers. They evaluate both the Mines and Jewelers in the customer-supplier relationship in terms of the previously defined items. The Jewelers are evaluated as customers and the Mines as suppliers. For each item, the companies typically receive scores from more than one evaluator.
The final score of the evaluation items of a company is the mean of the scores given by the different evaluators. Each Goldsmith is formed by at least three students. Two to four Jewelers — they purchase jewelry from the Goldsmiths according to the demand defined by the Exporter, and they evaluate the Goldsmiths in the customer-supplier relationship in terms of the previously defined items.
Each Jeweler is formed by two students. Exporter — played by the teacher. Negotiates for high volumes of jewelry demand from the GAME with each Jeweler without determining the color or design of the jewels but only the amount of raw material used to make each jewel.
The Exporter first determines the jewel lots for the Jewelers. As the GAME proceeds, if the Jewelers make counterproposals, the Exporter negotiates the number of jewels and the prices on a case-by-case basis. Government — also played by the teacher. Takes measures of a general nature to ensure that the GAME favors the production and consequent management of each business. Audit Committee — formed by a group of students. Its functions include evaluating the companies of the GAME as stakeholders regarding specific items, representing other stakeholders e.
These pins are produced in five colors and four designs and were chosen because it is an affordable national product that is available in the market. The colors are white, yellow, red, green, and blue. In the game, they represent precious metals and gems — platinum, gold, rubellite, tourmaline, and aquamarine, respectively.
The pins are also classified in terms of the design: 4-hole pins, 3-hole pins, 1-hole pins, and half-wheels. It is worth mentioning that no green half-wheel pins are produced. Figure 2 shows jewelry made from pins of various colors and designs.
In addition to selling, buying, and handling the pins and manufacturing jewelry, the companies have to manage their business as a whole. All of this information is contained in the GAME Manual distributed to the students on the first day of class. Regarding MBA programs graduate programs of at least hours , the basic assumption is that the students already have the theoretical knowledge and the skills and competencies necessary for a sound execution of the GAME — from the disciplines already studied, the knowledge acquired in undergraduate courses, or the training administered by companies or acquired via professional activities.
The second encounter is a general rehearsal at which all activities concerning purchases, production, sales, and evaluations are performed simultaneously by the students and the teacher. During this encounter, the students become familiar with their team, the instruments pins and spreadsheets , and the decisions and actions they need to take to develop the production chain. The results of this round are not considered.
These evaluations are the object of the analysis conducted herein. The answers are used in this process, which also includes the final outcome of the GAME. In the evaluation for the award, these eight criteria were subdivided into 23 evaluation items all with some internal breakdown , 17 of which were related to managerial processes and six to organizational results.
In the GAME evaluation form the items are listed in the first column of Table 2 for which the first digit refers to one of the eight criteria and the second digit refers to their breakdown. Some BEM criteria are evaluated with more than one item, totaling 39 — 33 related to managerial processes and six to economic-financial results. Each team receives a score of 1 to 5 for each of the 33 items related to management processes. In the six economic-financial items, the value of the score is given by ordering the results within each sector, except for item 8.
The items have different weights, consistent with the BEM score see Table 2 for the weights. The team with the highest weighted mean is the winner of the GAME. The scores assigned by the AC to each item were standardized by the median of each item in the class to control for the possible subjectivity of the evaluators, particularly from the Audit Committee AC.
This section presents the results of a factor analysis and, as an example, the distribution of the values obtained for the first two factors. A generalized linear model is subsequently fitted to the data using the factors identified to explain the likelihood of success in the GAME.
A factor analysis was conducted with 39 items. The information about the factor loading associated with this decomposition is shown in Table 2. Graph 1 indicates the factor loadings of the items as a function of the first two factors.
The items that served as references for naming the factors are indicated by red ellipses. For Factor 1 Focus on the customer , the items were as follows: 2.
For Factor 2 Focus on the supplier , the items were as follows: 2. The points corresponding to the winners are mainly concentrated in the first and fourth quadrants, indicating that Factor 1 seems to be relevant for success in the GAME, whereas Factor 2 is not. These findings are corroborated in the comparative histograms of the factors see Graphs 3 and 4 and in the tests presented in Table 3.
Model of Skills Development at the Operational Level Applied to the Steel Industry
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