CAUSES OF NGONI MIGRATION PDF

The Ngoni migrated due to the tyrannical and dictatorial rule of Shaka, the Zulu ruler who was everything in his kingdom. His cruelty was shown when he lost his mother, and put people under severe signs of mourning. They moved because of external pressure from the British and the Boers in the South who were moving northwards occupying their land. It was due to over population, which was caused by the fertility of soils and reliability of rainfall between Drakensberg Mountains and the Indian Ocean. Due to overpopulation there was land shortage hence land disputes, which led to forcing them to migrate to other areas. Some owned large herds of cattle hence moved northwards looking for pasture and water for their animals.

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Who were the Ngoni? But when Shaka defeated Zwide, one part of his group in s moved to East Africa into two groups of the Maseko and Tuta under Zwangendaba. They are currently settled in south west Tanzania around Songea town.

The Ngoni invasions illustrate the influence of external forces on the lives of the indigenous people. However, the Ngoni brought innovation and changes such as military techniques, skill and weapons. A study of the Ngoni will enable students to appreciate the current settlement patterns and way of the life of the southern Tanzania.

Due to this some people decided to seek refuge by migrating to other areas. Pastoralism reason: S ome Ngoni people owned large herds of cattle and northwards looking for pasture and water for their animals.

So they wanted to look for more fertile land for their cattle. They also experienced famine and drought that led to lack of food and water. This encouraged them to move onwards. Increased knowledge of military tactics by the age regiments: These were powerful military forces and dedicated to professional war, which was their livelihood.

They believed that they could have other territories through migration. Later in they divided into two groups. The one group under the leadership of Zwangendaba passed west of Lake Malawi and settled at Ufipa in They were attracted to this area here because of the many herds of cattle around. Zwangendaba led the biggest Ngoni group that entered in East Africa. Zwangendaba died here in around , and his followers splint up into five sections.

Three sections returned south to Zambia and Malawi while the other two such as Tuta and Gwangara sections remained at ufipa. When Zwangendaba died around , the Ufipa Ngoni disagreed and split into five groups. Whereby the two groups remained in East Africa such as Tuta and Gwangara Ngoni, three groups moved out of East Africa that is to say, one group moved to Malawi and the two moved back to Zambia.

The Tuta Ngoni, the smallest group left in Ufipa, moved northwards fighting and crashing with the Holoholo near Lake Tanganyika, they disrupted the trade route between Tabora and Ujiji. In thes they invaded the Nyamwezi capturing many and incorporating them in their ranks. They finally settled at Kahama South of Lke Victoria. Some Maseko moved back to Mozambique while others moved to Kilombero valley where they became known as the Mbunga.

Another splinter group moved to Newala, Masasi and Tunduru. The Ngoni migration which started around s had ended by the year s. The Ngoni had a large, well trained and disciplined army; they were grouped in age-regiments which were maintained for long periods. The Ngoni did not cultivate but rather lived by plundering from others this enabled them to have a standing army always ready for battle. They had superior weapons such as the short stabbing spear Assegai and big cowhide shields, which only left soldiers face exposed to the enemy, protected the worriers.

Instead of the long throwing spears which had to be thrown one by one, the Ngoni adopted short stabbing spears and clubs known as Assegai, copied from Shaka the Zulu. On the other hand their enemy used the long throwing spear. They had superior military tactics such as cow horn method semi-circle , which was unfamiliar in East Africa. They fought in organised age regiments and could attack their enemies using the cow horn formation. They also chose clear open spaces for fighting and liked attacking their enemies during nights.

They met small and fragmented societies, which were unable to challenge their military organisation. Slave trade had undermined most of the communities of southern Tanzania.

The Ngoni were successful due to their determination. They were determined to conquer and obtained places for settlement. This was due to the fact that they were already chased away from their homeland, and their only alternative was to get determined and fight any people they came across.

The East African people were caught unaware and therefore did not offer much resistance. Disunity among the East African peoplewholived in isolated societies, made it easy for Ngoni to defeat them. The Ngoni were fully united under their commanders. They were successful because of their unity and solidarity. They mixed freely with the non-Ngoni speaking people.

They had strong military leaders for example, Zwangendaba, Induna and Maputo who were able to unite and command the Ngoni. They used assimilation policy, i. They would force the captured men from other tribes to join them and became Ngoni warriors. They also made themselves fearful to their enemies by wearing the skeletons of their victims. The Ngoni military organisation The Ngoni were small group of people but were able to make their presence and authority fell by the local people because of their leadership, outstanding military efficiency and their capacity to absorb conquered people into their armies.

Militarily the Ngoni were organised in large standing armies and age regiments; people of the same age trained together, which brought unity and efficiency. They used the short stabbing spears called assegai rather than the long throwing spears which meant that the warriors could attack more effectively at a close range They used large cow hide shields, which could not be easily penetrated by spears.

They used the cow horn method of surrounding an enemy and attacking from all sides giving the enemy little chance to escape. They often fought on their feet and in open areas for easy movement. They moved in a large numbers which helped them to outnumber their enemies who were often caught unaware, they used to absorb and assimilate all conquered people. The Social, Political and Economic Effects of the Ngoni Migration Explain the social, political and economic effects of the Ngoni migration Effects of Ngoni invasion or migration in East Africa Positive effects The Ngoni invasion led to the rise on outstanding leaders to prominence.

These included Mirambo, Nyungu ya Mawe and Mkwawa, who used the Ngoni military tactics to build their states. Many small Ntemi chiefdoms came together united and formed large political units under strong leaders to fight the Ngoni for example Sangu and Hehe re-organisation. The Hehe under Mkwawa were able to resist the Germans. There was spread of Ngoni customs and culture for example initiation ceremonies where girls were taught sex educations and circumcision.

It led to formation of a large Ngoni society in East Africa as they absorbed many people. It led to the ormation of some societies by those who used Ngoni tactics for example Nyamwezi under Mirambo. It led to the introduction of new weapons eg.

From the Ngoni invasion people learned how to become organised from smaller disorganised society, to well organised bigger political systems. These were to be under the control and leadership of organised, strong and efficient rulers such as the Sangu chief, Hehe etc. There were intermarriages between Ngoni and Nyamwezi which subsequently led to improved relationships between the invaders and indigenous people and an increased population.

Negative effects They caused the loss of lives leading to depopulation in some areas where they got warriors this was especially in southern Tanzania. This was due to the killing of people in the expansionist wars e. They introduced military organisation and tactics to such an extent that the Ngoni lost their superiority. Their movement led to wider spread of devastation, depopulation and displacement of people.

They destroyed the economy of the people of southern Tanzania when they grabbed their cattle the Ngoni were cattle plunderers. The Ngoni invasion led to poverty, i. The Ngoni led to formation of refugees who lived by plundering and killing i. The Tuta Ngoni on their movement northwards, disrupted the trade particularly between Tabora and Ujiji.

This led to people losing their identity. In addition, such groups became terrorists who lived by war, plunder and hunting for ivory. Ngoni disturbances disrupted normal cultivation leading to famine. There was widespread famine due to the scotched-earth policy of fighting circumstances, crop could neither be planted nor harvested, and people were forced to abandon farming.

They led to insecurity since the new weapons and military tactics increased warfare and aggression in East Africa. The Ngoni intensified slave trade in East Africa, this was because they displaced people from their homes and so making it easy for slave raiders to catch and sell them. It led to increased warfare among the African societies, including those areas that had been peaceful before.

Post a Comment. The Causes of the Ngoni Migration. Explain the causes of the Ngoni migration. Reasons for the Ngoni migration. Movement and settlement of the Ngoni to East Africa. There were three groups of the Ngoni in East Africa as They then crossed river Zambezi and river Limpompo and moved northwards in search of new land. The Ngoni came in big numbers and were strong: On their way they absorbed or fought off the people they encountered, capturing the young for worries and young women for wives.

The Ngoni military organisation. The Ngoni were small group of people but were able to make their presence and authority fell by the local people because of their leadership, outstanding military efficiency and their capacity to absorb conquered people into their armies. They used the short stabbing spears called assegai rather than the long throwing spears which meant that the warriors could attack more effectively at a close range.

They used large cow hide shields, which could not be easily penetrated by spears. Explain the social, political and economic effects of the Ngoni migration. Effects of Ngoni invasion or migration in East Africa. Positive effects. The Ngoni invasion led to the rise on outstanding leaders to prominence. Negative effects. They caused the loss of lives leading to depopulation in some areas where they got warriors this was especially in southern Tanzania.

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Causes of ngoni migration?

In twenty years they travelled over a thousand miles. This means the "great scattering". Not much was written about the Mfecane. What we know is from the diaries of missionaries and travellers from Europe, and from the stories passed down from generation to generation. It all started with troubles in South Africa. The Zulus became rich and defeated many other tribes. Different people wanted to be in charge.

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Ngoni Migration - History of Ngoni tribe

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