Bothrops pictus , commonly known in English as the desert lancehead , is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae. Adults of B. Dorsally , B. On each flank is a series of smaller roundish blotches of the same color as the dorsal blotches. There is a dark streak from behind the eye to the corner of the mouth. Ventrally, it is yellowish with brown dots or spots.
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Bothrops pictus. Family: Viperidae. General Shape Small in length, relatively stout bodied pitviper with a moderately short non-prehensile tail. Head is broad, flattened, lance shaped when viewed from above and distinct from narrow neck. Snout is not elevated. Eyes are medium in size with vertically elliptical pupils. Dorsal scales are keeled. Habitat Arid to semi-arid foothills, river valleys and rocky regions in desert and deciduous thicket including coastal desert. Habits Terrestrial and mainly a nocturnal snake.
Small Approx 20k version. General: Venom Neurotoxins Probably not present. General: Venom Anticoagulants Probably not present. General: Venom Nephrotoxins Probably not present.
General: Venom Cardiotoxins Probably not present. General: Dangerousness Unknown, but potentially lethal envenoming, though unlikely, cannot be excluded.
General: Untreated Lethality Rate: Unknown but lethal potential cannot be excluded. General: Local Effects Insufficient clinical reports to know, but possibly marked local effects; pain, severe swelling, bruising, blistering, necrosis.
General: General Systemic Effects Variable non-specific effects which may include headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dizziness, collapse or convulsions. General: Neurotoxic Paralysis Does not occur, based on current clinical evidence. General: Myotoxicity No case reports for this species, but related species can cause systemic myolysis. General: Renal Damage Insufficient clinical reports to know.
General: Cardiotoxicity No case reports for this species, but related species can cause hyperkalaemic cardiotoxicity secondary to myolysis. General: Other Insufficient clinical reports to know. Description: First aid for bites by Viperid snakes likely to cause significant local injury at the bite site see listing in Comments section.
Details 1. After ensuring the patient and onlookers have moved out of range of further strikes by the snake, the bitten person should be reassured and persuaded to lie down and remain still. Many will be terrified, fearing sudden death and, in this mood, they may behave irrationally or even hysterically. The basis for reassurance is the fact that many venomous bites do not result in envenoming, the relatively slow progression to severe envenoming hours following elapid bites, days following viper bites and the effectiveness of modern medical treatment.
The bite wound should not be tampered with in any way. Wiping it once with a damp cloth to remove surface venom is unlikely to do much harm or good but the wound must not be massaged. All rings or other jewellery on the bitten limb, especially on fingers, should be removed, as they may act as tourniquets if oedema develops.
The bitten limb should be immobilised as effectively as possible using an extemporised splint or sling; if available, crepe bandaging of the splinted limb is an effective form of immobilisation. If there is any impairment of vital functions, such as problems with respiration, airway, circulation, heart function, these must be supported as a priority. In particular, for bites causing flaccid paralysis, including respiratory paralysis, both airway and respiration may be impaired, requiring urgent and prolonged treatment, which may include the mouth to mask mouth to mouth technique of expired air transfer.
Seek urgent medical attention. Do not use Tourniquets, cut, suck or scarify the wound or apply chemicals or electric shock. Avoid peroral intake, absolutely no alcohol. No sedatives outside hospital. If there will be considerable delay before reaching medical aid, measured in several hours to days, then give clear fluids by mouth to prevent dehydration.
If the offending snake has been killed it should be brought with the patient for identification only relevant in areas where there are more than one naturally occurring venomous snake species , but be careful to avoid touching the head, as even a dead snake can envenom. No attempt should be made to pursue the snake into the undergrowth as this will risk further bites. The snakebite victim should be transported as quickly and as passively as possible to the nearest place where they can be seen by a medically-trained person health station, dispensary, clinic or hospital.
The bitten limb must not be exercised as muscular contraction will promote systemic absorption of venom. If no motor vehicle or boat is available, the patient can be carried on a stretcher or hurdle, on the pillion or crossbar of a bicycle or on someone's back.
Most traditional, and many of the more recently fashionable, first aid measures are useless and potentially dangerous. These include local cauterization, incision, excision, amputation, suction by mouth, vacuum pump or syringe, combined incision and suction "venom-ex" apparatus , injection or instillation of compounds such as potassium permanganate, phenol carbolic soap and trypsin, application of electric shocks or ice cryotherapy , use of traditional herbal, folk and other remedies including the ingestion of emetic plant products and parts of the snake, multiple incisions, tattooing and so on.
Treatment Summary This treatment advice is general for most Bothrops species. Bites will vary from minor to life threatening. Therefore manage all bites as potentially major. Look for moderate to severe local effects, including pain, swelling, potential for fluid shifts and hypovolaemic shock, blistering, necrosis, abscess formation.
Systemic effects may be minor or severe, possibly including coagulopathy and bleeding, kidney damage, even myolytic muscle damage. All cases with significant systemic effects require IV antivenom, as will most cases with significant local effects. Admit all cases. Antivenom Therapy Antivenom is the key treatment for systemic envenoming. Multiple doses may be required. Address: Contiguo a la plaza de deportes, Dulce Nombre de Coronado. Address: Av. Defensores del Morro Chorrillos Lima 9.
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Bothrops pictus (Tschudi, 1845)