BIOSINTESIS ALKALOID PDF

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The biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate IPP occurs via two distinct routes: the mevalonate pathway MVApathway,thispathway andthemethylerythritolphosphatepathway MEP pathway. In the former, IPP is synthesized from the condensation of three acetylCoA molecules in contrast the MEP pathway occurs via the condensation of pyruvate and Dglyceraldehyde 3phosphate.

For many years, the MVA pathway was considered to be the sole source of IPP in all living organisms, however, several inconsistencies led to the discoveryoftheMEPpathwayinbacteriaandplants. Flavonoidbiosyntheticpathway NatriumSejarah Inggris, sodaLatin,sodanum,oba In eukaryotic cells, the mevalonate pathway leads to plant sterol biosynthesis , superpathway of ergosterolbiosynthesisanddolicholsviatheformationoffarnesyldiphosphate FPP.

Inplants,themevalonatepathwayisalsoasourceofisopreneunitsforthebiosynthesisofavarietyof terpenoids cytokinins,brassinosteroids,sesquiterpenes,polyprenoids. This pathway described as mevalonat pathway displays the enzymatic steps that lead to mevalonate and the further conversion towards dimethylallyl pyrophosphate DMPP one of the crucial intermediates that give.

Most of the enzymes characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana from this pathway have been demonstrated to be fully functional, largely through functional complementationofbacterialandyeastmutantstrains. TheproposalthattheconversionfromacetylCoAtohydroxymethylglutarylCoAcomprisingtwoenzymaticstepsis carriedoutbyasingleenzymewasnotconfirmedastheyeastmutantdeficientinacetoacetylCoAthiolasecould not be functionally complemented.

The isolation and characterization of hydroxymethylglutarylCoA synthase fromBrassicajunceaindicatesthatthoseconversionsareconductedbytwoindependentproteins. The enzyme is located within the Endoplasmatic Reticulum ER but has also been found within new and so far unidentified vesicular structures in the cytoplasm and within the vacuole of differentiatedcotyledoncells.

The remaining steps towards DMPP comprise two phosphorylation steps to convert mevalonate to mevalonate5diphosphate. Flavonoid biosynthetic pathway Flavonoids are synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase PAL catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to cinnamate. PAL also shows activity with converting tyrosinetopcoumarate,albeittoalowerefficiency. Thecinnamate4hydroxylase C4H catalyzesthe synthesis of phydroxycinnamate from cinnamate and 4coumarate:CoA ligase 4CL converts p coumarate to its coenzymeA ester, activating it for reaction with malonyl CoA.

The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway starts with the condensation of one molecule of 4coumaroylCoA and three molecules of malonylCoA, yielding naringenin chalcone. This reaction is carried out by the enzyme chalcone synthase CHS. Chalcone is isomerised to a flavanone by the enzyme chalcone flavanone isomerase CHI. From these central intermediates, the pathway diverges into several side branches, each resulting in a different class of flavonoids.

Flavanone 3hydroxylase F3H catalyzes the stereospecific 3hydroxylation of 2S flavanones to dihydroflavonols. For the biosynthesis of anthocyanins,dihydroflavonolreductase DFR catalyzesthereductionofdihydroflavonolstoflavan3,4 diols leucoanthocyanins ,whichareconvertedtoanthocyanidinsbyanthocyanidinsynthase ANS.

The overview of the flavonoid pathway is presented in Fig 1B. There is evidence that the enzymes involved in flavonoid metabolism might be acting as membraneassociated multienzyme complexes, which has implications ontheoverallefficiency,specificity,andregulationofthepathway Stafford,WinkelShirley, Studies of the flavonoid pathway range from classical genetic analysis of flower color inheritance patterns by Mendel, through the establishment of their chemical structures, to efforts to understand the factors involved in their biochemical synthesis Bohm Basic knowledge of the flavonoid biosynthesis was gained from experimental studies using radiolabeled precursors at the end ofs.

Thedevelopmentofmoresophisticatedmethodsinanalyticalchemistryandenzymology,and later in gene technology, has produced a vast number of studies and detailed information of the flavonoid biosynthesis in several plant species.

The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway has been comprehensively reviewed e. The first gene isolated from the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was a CHS gene from parsley Petroselinum hortense Kreuzaler et al.

Transcriptional control of the structural genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway has been most intensively studied in relation to the biosynthesis of anthocyanins.

Groundbreakingresearchconcerningtheexpressionofthestructuralandregulatorygenes of the flavonoid pathway has been done with maize Zeamays Goffet al. Naturally occurring flavonoid mutants and variants, or genetically transformed mutant plants have been important tools in several investigations clarifying thefunctionsoftheflavonoidpathwaygenes Shirleyetal.

The expression of flavonoid pathway genes in fruit tissues has been studied on grape Vitis vinifera Bossetal. Moriguchi et al. Thescarcityofstudiesinthis area may be due to a difficulty caused by the special features of the fruit tissues, e. Figure 1. A The structures of selected flavonoid classes. B A schematic presentation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

Natrium Sejarah Inggris,sodaLatin,sodanum,obatsakitkepala. SebelumDavyberhasilmengisolasiunsurinidengancara elektrolisissodakaustik,natrium unsurinidisebutsodiumdalambahasaInggris ,telahdikenaldalamberbagai suatusenyawa. Sumber Natriumbanyakditemukandibintangbintang. Natriumjuga merupakanelementerbanyakkeempatdibumi,terkandungsebanyak2.

Unsurinimerupakan unsurterbanyakdalamgruplogamalkali. Metodainilebih murahketimbangmengelektrolisisnatriumhidroksida,sepertiyangpernahdigunakanbeberapatahunlalu. Sifatsifat Natrium,sepertiunsurradioaktiflainnya,tidakpernahditemukantersendiridialam.

Natriumadalahlogamkeperak perakanyanglembutdanmengapungdiatasair. Tergantungpadajumlahoksidadanlogamyangterkekspospada air,natriumdapatterbakarsecaraspontanitas. Lazimnyaunsurinitidakterbakarpadasuhudibawahderajat Celcius.

Kegunaan Logamnatriumsangatpentingdalamfabrikasisenyawaesterdandalampersiapansenyawasenyawaorganik. Logam inidapatdigunakanuntukmemperbaikistrukturbeberapacampuranlogam,danuntukmemurnikanlogamcair. Campuranlogamnatriumdankalium,NaK,jugamerupakanagenheattransfer transfusipanas yangpenting. SenyawasenyawaSenyawayangpalingbanyakditemukanadalahnatriumklorida garamdapur ,tapijuga terkandungdidalammineralminerallainnyasepertisodaniter,amphibole,zeolite,dsb.

Sabun biasanyamerupakangaramnatriumyangmengandungasamlemaktertentu. Pentingnyagaramsebagainutrisibagi binatangtelahdiketahuisejakzamanpurbakala. Isotopisotop Adatigabelasisotopnatrium. Penanganan Logamnatriumharusditanganidenganhatihati. Logaminitidakdapatdiselubungidalamkondisiinertsehingga kontakdenganairdanbahanbahanlainnyayangmembuatnatriumbereaksiharusdihindari. Answer: Triglyceridesinthefatoil Can be either solid or liquid depending on the composition of the constituent fatty acids.

Liquidvegetableoilbecauseitcontainsunsaturatedfattyacids,whileanimalfatsaregenerallysolid atroomtemperaturebecauseitcontainsunsaturatedfattyacids. Fatoil Triglyceridesarecomposedofamixtureofestersofglycerolandlongchainfattyacids. Fat iftheoilwillproducethreemolecularhydrolyzedlongchainfattyacidsandaglycerolmolecule. Triglyceridesoilfatty Derived from various sources have physicochemical properties are different from each otherthatoccursbecauseofdifferencesinthenumberandtypesofesterscontainedtherein.

Triglyceridesinthefatoil Didnotdifferintheirchemicalcompositiondifferingonlyinshapeorform. Triglyceridesare calledoilswhenmeltedatroomtemperatureandiscalledsolidifitfreezesatroomtemperature. Therearemanydifferentkindsoffats,buteachisavariationonthesame chemicalstructure. Themolecules arecalledtriglycerides,whicharetriestersofglycerol anesterbeingthemolecule formedfromthereactionofthecarboxylicacidandanorganicalcohol.

Asasimple visualillustration,ifthekinksandanglesofthesechainswerestraightenedout,the moleculewouldhavetheshapeofacapitalletterE. Thefattyacidswouldeachbe a horizontal line the glycerol "backbone" would be the vertical line that joins the horizontallines. Thepropertiesofanyspecificfatmoleculedependontheparticularfatty acidsthatconstituteit. Differentfattyacidsarecomposedofdifferentnumbersof carbonandhydrogenatoms.

Thecarbonatoms,eachbondedtotwoneighboring carbonatoms,formazigzaggingchainthemorecarbonatomsthereareinany fattyacid,thelongeritschainwillbe. Fattyacidswithlongchainsaremore susceptibletointermolecularforcesofattraction inthiscase,vanderWaals forces ,raisingitsmeltingpoint.

Longchainsalsoyieldmoreenergypermolecule whenmetabolized. Eachcarbonatominthechainissaturated with hydrogen, meaning they are bonded to as many hydrogens as possible. These fatty acids contain double bonds within carbon chain. This results in an "unsaturated" fatty acid. More specifically, it would be amonounsaturated fatty acid.

Unsaturated fats can be converted to saturated ones by the process of hydrogenation. This technologyunderpinnedthedevelopmentofmargerine. Saturatedandunsaturatedfatsdifferintheirenergycontentandmelting point. Sinceunsaturatedfatscontainfewercarbonhydrogenbondsthansaturated fatswiththesamenumberofcarbonatoms,unsaturatedfatswillyieldslightlyless energyduringmetabolismthansaturatedfatswiththesamenumberofcarbon atoms.

Saturatedfatscanstackthemselvesinacloselypackedarrangement,so theycanfreezeeasilyandaretypicallysolidatroomtemperature. Forexample, animalfatstallowandlardarehighinsaturatedfattyacidcontentandaresolids. Transfats Therearetwowaysthedoublebondmaybearranged:theisomerwithboth partsofthechainonthesamesideofthedoublebond thecisisomer ,orthe isomerwiththepartsofthechainonoppositesidesofthedoublebond thetrans isomer.

Mosttransisomerfats commonlycalledtransfats arecommercially produced. Thecisisomerintroducesakinkinto themoleculethatpreventsthefatsfromstackingefficientlyasinthecaseoffats withsaturatedchains. Thisdecreasesintermolecularforcesbetweenthefat molecules,makingitmoredifficultforunsaturatedcisfatstofreezetheyare typicallyliquidatroomtemperature.

Transfatsmaystillstacklikesaturatedfats, andarenotassusceptibletometabolizationasotherfats. Transfatsmay significantlyincreasetheriskofcoronaryheartdisease. Whatisthebasic ideaandhowthemachanismcouldbedescribed? Answer: Primary metabolite can be converted into secondary metabolisme from the reactionthefundamentalprocessesofphotosynthesis,glycolysis,andtheKrebscycleare tappedofffromenergygeneratingprocessestoprovidebiosyntheticintermediates.

Tomake biosynthesis intermediets needs the buillding blocks. By far the most important building blocks employed in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are derived from the intermediates acetyl coenzyme A acetylCoA , shikimic acid, mevalonic acid, and methylerythritol phosphate.

These are utilized respectively in the acetate, shikimate, mevalonate, and methylerythritol phosphate pathways, AcetylCoA is formed by oxidative decarboxylationoftheglycolyticpathwayproductpyruvicacid. Itisalsoproducedbythe oxidation of fatty acids, effectively reversing the process by which fatty acids are themselves synthesized from acetylCoA. Important secondary metabolites formed from the acetate pathway include phenols, prostaglandins, and macrolide antibiotics, together with various fatty acids and derivatives at the primarysecondary metabolism interface.

Shikimicacidisproducedfromacombinationofphosphoenolpyruvate,aglycolyticpathway intermediate, and erythrose 4phosphate from the pentose phosphate pathway. The reactionsofthepentosephosphatecyclemaybeemployedforthedegradationofglucose, buttheyalsofeatureinthesynthesisofsugarsbyphotosynthesis.

Theshikimatepathway leads to a variety of phenols, cinnamic acid derivatives, lignans, and alkaloids.

DARKSIDE OF XEEN MANUAL PDF

Alkaloid (Pengertian Dan Sifat Fisikokimia Alkaloid)

The biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate IPP occurs via two distinct routes: the mevalonate pathway MVApathway,thispathway andthemethylerythritolphosphatepathway MEP pathway. In the former, IPP is synthesized from the condensation of three acetylCoA molecules in contrast the MEP pathway occurs via the condensation of pyruvate and Dglyceraldehyde 3phosphate. For many years, the MVA pathway was considered to be the sole source of IPP in all living organisms, however, several inconsistencies led to the discoveryoftheMEPpathwayinbacteriaandplants. Flavonoidbiosyntheticpathway NatriumSejarah Inggris, sodaLatin,sodanum,oba In eukaryotic cells, the mevalonate pathway leads to plant sterol biosynthesis , superpathway of ergosterolbiosynthesisanddolicholsviatheformationoffarnesyldiphosphate FPP.

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Alkaloid Biosintesis

Embed Size px x x x x View Download 37 Category Documents. Senyawa kedua adalah senyawa hasil metabolisme sekunder, contohnya terpenoid, steroid, alkaloid dan flavonoid. Alkaloid adalah suatu golongan senyawa organik yang terbanyak ditemukan di alam. Hampir seluruh alkaloid berasal dari tumbuh-tumbuhan dan tersebar luas dalam berbagai jenis tumbuhan tingkat tinggi.

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