Gurdjieff described a method attempting to do so, calling the discipline "The Work"  connoting "work on oneself" or "the System". Some authors such as James Moore argue for Both Olga de Hartmann, the woman Gurdjieff called "the first friend of my inner life", and Louise Goepfert March, Gurdjieff's secretary in the early s, believed that Gurdjieff was born in A passport gave a birthdate of November 28, , but he once stated that he was born at the stroke of midnight at the beginning of New Year's Day Julian calendar. Although the dates of his birth vary, the year of is inscribed in a plate on the gravemarker in the cemetery of Avon, Seine-et-Marne , France, where his body was buried. Gurdjieff spent his childhood in Kars , which, from to , was the administrative capital of the Russian-ruled Transcaucasus province of Kars Oblast, a border region recently captured from the Ottoman Empire.
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Gurdjieff described a method attempting to do so, calling the discipline "The Work"  connoting "work on oneself" or "the System". Some authors such as James Moore argue for Both Olga de Hartmann, the woman Gurdjieff called "the first friend of my inner life", and Louise Goepfert March, Gurdjieff's secretary in the early s, believed that Gurdjieff was born in A passport gave a birthdate of November 28, , but he once stated that he was born at the stroke of midnight at the beginning of New Year's Day Julian calendar.
Although the dates of his birth vary, the year of is inscribed in a plate on the gravemarker in the cemetery of Avon, Seine-et-Marne , France, where his body was buried. Gurdjieff spent his childhood in Kars , which, from to , was the administrative capital of the Russian-ruled Transcaucasus province of Kars Oblast, a border region recently captured from the Ottoman Empire.
It contained extensive grassy plateau-steppe and high mountains, and was inhabited by a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional population that had a history of respect for travelling mystics and holy men, and for religious syncretism and conversion. Both the city of Kars and the surrounding territory were home to an extremely diverse population: although part of the Armenian Plateau , Kars Oblast was home to Armenians, Russians, Caucasus Greeks, Georgians, Turks, Kurds and smaller numbers of Christian communities from eastern and central Europe such as Caucasus Germans , Estonians and Russian sectarian communities like the Molokans , Doukhobors , Pryguny , and Subbotniki.
Gurdjieff makes particular mention of the Yazidi community. The young Gurdjieff avidly read Russian-language scientific literature. In early adulthood, according to his own account, Gurdjieff's curiosity led him to travel to Central Asia , Egypt , Iran , India , Tibet and Rome before he returned to Russia for a few years in He was never forthcoming about the source of his teachings.
The only account of his wanderings appears in his book Meetings with Remarkable Men. Most commentators  leave his background unexplained, and it is not generally considered to be a reliable or straightforward autobiography. After Gurdjieff's death, J. Bennett researched his sources extensively and suggested that these characters were symbolic of the three types of people to whom Gurdjieff referred: No.
He asserts that he has encounters with dervishes , fakirs and descendants of the extinct Essenes , whose teaching had been, he said, conserved at a monastery in Sarmoung. The book also has an overarching quest narrative involving a map of "pre-sand Egypt" and culminating in an encounter with the " Sarmoung Brotherhood ". Gurdjieff wrote that he supported himself during his travels with odd jobs and trading schemes one of which he described as dyeing hedgerow birds yellow and selling them as canaries.
His only autobiographical writing concerning this period is Herald of Coming Good. In it, he mentions acting as hypnotherapist specialising in the cure of addictions and using people as guinea pigs  for his methods.
It is also speculated that during his travels, he was engaged in a certain amount of political activity, as part of The Great Game. From to , the chronology appears to be based on material that can be confirmed by primary documents, independent witnesses, cross-references and reasonable inference.
In , Gurdjieff advertised his ballet, The Struggle of the Magicians, and he supervised his pupils' writing of the sketch Glimpses of Truth. In , Gurdjieff accepted P. Ouspensky as a pupil, and in , he accepted the composer Thomas de Hartmann and his wife, Olga, as students. Then, he had about 30 pupils. Ouspensky already had a reputation as a writer on mystical subjects and had conducted his own, ultimately disappointing, search for wisdom in the East.
The Fourth Way "system" taught during this period was complex and metaphysical, partly expressed in scientific terminology. In the midst of revolutionary upheaval in Russia, Gurdjieff left Petrograd in to return to his family home in Alexandropol. During the Bolshevik Revolution , he set up temporary study communities in Essentuki in the Caucasus , then in Tuapse , Maikop , Sochi and Poti , all on the Black Sea coast of southern Russia, where he worked intensively with many of his Russian pupils.
Gurdjieff said, "Begin in Russia, End in Russia". The two men were to have a very ambivalent relationship for decades to come. Four months later, Gurdjieff's eldest sister and her family reached him in Essentuki as refugees, informing him that Turks had shot his father in Alexandropol on 15 May.
As Essentuki became more and more threatened by civil war, Gurdjieff fabricated a newspaper story announcing his forthcoming "scientific expedition" to "Mount Induc". Posing as a scientist, Gurdjieff left Essentuki with fourteen companions excluding Gurdjieff's family and Ouspensky.
They travelled by train to Maikop, where hostilities delayed them for three weeks. In spring , Gurdjieff met the artist Alexandre de Salzmann and his wife Jeanne and accepted them as pupils. In , Gurdjieff and his closest pupils moved to Tbilisi.
There, Gurdjieff's wife Julia Ostrowska, the Stjoernvals, the Hartmanns, and the de Salzmanns gathered the fundamentals of his teaching. Gurdjieff concentrated on his still unstaged ballet, The Struggle of the Magicians.
Thomas de Hartmann who had made his debut years ago, before Czar Nicholas II of Russia , worked on the music for the ballet, and Olga Ivanovna Hinzenberg who years later wed the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright , practiced the ballet dances.
In late May , when political conditions in Georgia changed and the old order was crumbling, his party travelled to Batumi on the Black Sea coast and then traveled by ship to Istanbul.
In Istanbul, Gurdjieff also met his future pupil Capt. John G. Bennett , then head of British Military Intelligence in Constantinople , who describes his impression of Gurdjieff as follows:. It was there that I first met Gurdjieff in the autumn of , and no surroundings could have been more appropriate. In Gurdjieff, East and West do not just meet.
Their difference is annihilated in a world outlook which knows no distinctions of race or creed. This was my first, and has remained one of my strongest impressions.
A Greek from the Caucasus, he spoke Turkish with an accent of unexpected purity, the accent that one associates with those born and bred in the narrow circle of the Imperial Court. His appearance was striking enough even in Turkey, where one saw many unusual types. His head was shaven, immense black moustache, eyes which at one moment seemed very pale and at another almost black.
Below average height, he gave nevertheless an impression of great physical strength. In August and , Gurdjieff travelled around western Europe, lecturing and giving demonstrations of his work in various cities, such as Berlin and London. He attracted the allegiance of Ouspensky's many prominent pupils notably the editor A. The once-impressive but somewhat crumbling mansion set in extensive grounds housed an entourage of several dozen, including some of Gurdjieff's remaining relatives and some White Russian refugees.
New pupils included C. Gurdjieff was putting into practice his teaching that people need to develop physically, emotionally and intellectually, hence the mixture of lectures, music, dance, and manual work. Gurdjieff was standing by his bed in a state of what seemed to me to be completely uncontrolled fury. He was raging at Orage, who stood impassively, and very pale, framed in one of the windows Suddenly, in the space of an instant, Gurdjieff's voice stopped, his whole personality changed, he gave me a broad smile—looking incredibly peaceful and inwardly quiet— motioned me to leave, and then resumed his tirade with undiminished force.
This happened so quickly that I do not believe that Mr. Orage even noticed the break in the rhythm. During this period, Gurdjieff acquired notoriety as "the man who killed Katherine Mansfield" after Katherine Mansfield died there of tuberculosis under his care on 9 January Starting in , Gurdjieff made visits to North America, where he eventually received the pupils taught previously by A.
In , while driving alone from Paris to Fontainebleau, he had a near-fatal car accident. Nursed by his wife and mother, he made a slow and painful recovery against medical expectation. Still convalescent, he formally "disbanded" his institute on 26 August in fact, he dispersed only his "less dedicated" pupils , which he explained as an undertaking "in the future, under the pretext of different worthy reasons, to remove from my eyesight all those who by this or that make my life too comfortable".
After recovering, he began writing Beelzebub's Tales , the first part of All and Everything in a mixture of Armenian and Russian. The book was deliberately convoluted and obscure, forcing the reader to "work" to find its meaning.
He also composed it according to his own principles, writing in noisy cafes to force a greater effort of concentration. Gurdjieff's mother died in and his wife developed cancer and died in June Ouspensky attended her funeral. Some have interpreted that in terms of his following the Malamatiyya technique of the Sufis, he was deliberately attracting disapproval. Diana Huebert was a regular member of the Chicago group, and documented the several visits Gurdjieff made to the group in and in her memoirs on the man.
Gurdjieff constituted a new teaching group in Paris. Known as The Rope, it was composed of only women, many of them writers, and several lesbians. Gurdjieff became acquainted with Gertrude Stein through Rope members, but she was never a follower.
In , Gurdjieff stopped work on All and Everything. He had completed the first two parts of the planned trilogy but only started on the Third Series. In , he settled in a flat at 6, Rue des Colonels-Renard in Paris, where he was to stay for the rest of his life. In , his brother Dmitry died, and The Rope disbanded. Although the flat at 6 Rue des Colonels-Renard was very small for the purpose, he continued to teach groups of pupils throughout World War II.
Visitors recalled the pantry, stocked with an extraordinary collection of eastern delicacies, which served as his inner sanctum, and the suppers he held with elaborate toasts to "idiots"  in vodka and cognac.
Having cut a physically impressive figure for many years, he was now distinctly paunchy. His teaching was now far removed from the original "system", being based on proverbs, jokes and personal interaction, although pupils were required to read, three times if possible, copies of his magnum opus Beelzebub's Tales.
His personal business enterprises he had intermittently been a dealer in oriental rugs and carpets for much of his life, among other activities enabled him to offer charitable relief to neighbours who had been affected by the difficult circumstances of the war, and it also brought him to the attention of the authorities, leading to a night in the cells.
After the war, Gurdjieff tried to reconnect with his former pupils. Ouspensky was reluctant, but after his death October , his widow advised his remaining pupils to see Gurdjieff in Paris. Bennett also visited from England, the first meeting for 25 years. Ouspensky's pupils in England had all thought that Gurdjieff was dead. They discovered he was alive only after the death of Ouspensky, who had not told them that Gurdjieff was still living.
Hands and Murphy worked on the typing and retyping of the forthcoming book All and Everything. Even this is not enough to express it. It was a dead man, a corpse, that came out of the car; and yet it walked. I was shivering like someone who sees a ghost. With iron-like tenacity, he managed to gain his room, where he sat down and said: "Now all organs are destroyed. Must make new".
Uspenski Orthodox Cathedral - Uspenskin Cathedral (Uspenskin Katedraali)
Many viewers marveled at why the church bulged with people when gatherings of more than ten people are banned to curb the coronavirus. However, the viewers' concern was futile. Held on the night between Easter Saturday and Sunday, the Easter Mass is a major celebration of the Orthodox Church, which Yle has shown on television live for decades. Indeed, many spectators rubbed their eyes last night when the Easter Mass was once again shown on television, showing how the Uspenski Cathedral in Helsinki was filled with people.
After experiencing increasing alienation and career decline, Uspensky died on November 2, , when he committed suicide. Despite his relatively privileged position as the son of a priest, Uspensky grew up surrounded by poverty and alcoholism -driven violence, and frequently socialized with peasant children and often labored with them. In , Uspensky joined the theological seminary in Tula where he was flogged on a daily basis. Executions of this sort were the only pedagogical method known in this school. Flogging, vodka, bribery, cards, the atmosphere of servility and betrayal,  outward piety and secret debauchery—such were the basic elements of Nikolai's upbringing for more than ten years. One thing he could take refuge in were wild shenanigans For, despite things that were going on around him his mirth was fountain-like, making him perform every minute some kind of trick, practical joke or mystification.