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Correspondence to:. According to Woodburne and Williams et al. There is also communication with the vertebral venous plexuses, which assists in collateral circulation. The azygos vein is a blood vessel that originates most often in the abdominal region and ends in the thorax, where it empties into the SVC. According to Spalteholz, the lateral root only corresponds to the right ascending lumbar vein.
According to Williams et al. According to Lockhart et al. Hamilton and Di Dio state that the right subcostal vein is also a tributary and does not participate in the formation of the azygos vein.
Considering the variety in the formation of the azygos vein, the aim of the present study was to determine the most common origin of this vein through a series of dissections. The cadaver was placed in dorsal decubitus and a biacromio-xypho-sterno-pubic incision was made to access the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The abdominal viscera were then pushed aside for access of the retroperitoneal space.
Dissection was performed, with the identification of the origin of the azygos vein and observation of the structures and formation of this vein. The dissection continued, pushing aside the thoracic visceral and diaphragm in order to follow the azygos vein until it emptied into the superior vena cava.
The most frequent formation originated as the continuation of the right subcostal vein The azygos vein was formed by the confluence of the right subcostal and right ascending lumbar vein in three cases Azygos vein 1 the continuation of the right subcostal vein 2. The azygos 1 vein was formed by the confluence of the right subcostal vein 2 with a contribution from the inferior vena cava 3.
Azygos comes from the Greek A without and Zygos pair and is applied to all non-paired organs. Thus, identifying the variations in its origin is important, since some surgical procedures may require the use of this pathway, as in the case of ligature of the IVC during trauma surgery.
In the present study, there were 11 cases In eight cases The contribution of the IVC was indirect in the other three cases and came from a left accessory renal vein in one case, from the left renal vein in another and one was a case of a single root stemming from the left renal vein.
According to a number of authors, the formation of the azygos vein occurs through the confluence of the right subcostal vein and right ascending lumbar vein Lockhart et al.
The latter is formed by a vertical anastomosis of the right lumbar veins, which drain the lumbar tegument and muscles, abdominal walls and vertebral venous plexuses. The lumbar veins then move forward, contouring the sides of the vertebrae, and terminate in the IVC Lockhart et al. The right subcostal vein originates in the abdomen and drains the region of the 12th rib into the azygos vein.
In the present study, there were three cases However, we did not find the right ascending lumbar vein as a vertical anastomosis between the lumbar veins, but rather a contribution from the 1st lumbar vein and occupying the same drainage region suggested in the literature.
This finding contrasts that described by other authors Lockhart et al. In the present study, the right subcostal vein alone was found to form the azygos vein in Moreover, the left subcostal vein participated in the formation of the azygos vein in four cases The results of the present study demonstrate the considerable variety in the formation of the azygos vein, as described in the literature.
The only structure with a significant presence in the formation of this vein was the right subcostal vein. Di Dio, L. Tratado de Anatomia Aplicada. Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro, Interamericana, Barcelona, Labor, Barcelona, Salvat, Barcelona, Editores, Rio de Janeiro, Editora Guanabara Koogan, Received: Accepted: Servicios Personalizados Revista. Eleven different formations were found. The right subcostal vein was was only observed in 13 cases Based on the results, the right subcostal vein was the only structure with a significant presence in the formation of the azygos vein.
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Anatomia Humana - Latarjet Ruiz-liard - Tomo 1
Latarjet Ruiz Liard